How does sustainability affect businesses?

8 Minutes
Balancing short-term profits with long-term sustainable goals can be complex.

Sustainability, traditionally viewed as an external concern focused on the environment and society, has found its way to the heart of business operations: the workplace. In a world where companies are constantly assessed not only for their profitability but also for their impact, sustainability in the workplace has become a central issue. This document delves into the importance of sustainability within the working environment, exploring its various facets, from environmental impact and economic efficiency to employee well-being and brand reputation. With references to leading thinkers in the field, such as Elkington, Porter, and Kramer, among others, this text seeks to elucidate how sustainable practices can be integrated into the workplace for the mutual benefit of businesses, their employees, and the planet. Through a detailed analysis, we highlight not only the ethical and environmental imperatives of sustainability but also the tangible economic and brand benefits that companies can reap by adopting a sustainable approach in their daily operations.

Corporate Awareness and Environmental Implications

In the 21st-century business landscape, the interaction between corporate operations and the environment has become a central focus. Environmental degradation, resulting from unsustainable practices, and the consequences of climate change, have pressured companies to adopt more responsible practices. This awareness is not just a response to external pressures but also reflects an internal recognition of corporate responsibility towards the environment.

However, some argue that many companies adopt "green" practices more for marketing reasons than genuine environmental concern. Is the "green wave" just a passing trend or a lasting shift in corporate mindset?

The question of whether companies are adopting "green" practices out of genuine environmental concern or for marketing reasons is complex and has been the subject of debate and research. Let's explore this issue based on actual references:


The term "greenwashing" refers to the practice of companies promoting their products, objectives, or policies as environmentally friendly when, in reality, they are not. According to a 2007 study by TerraChoice Environmental Marketing (now part of UL-Environment), out of 4,744 "green" products examined, 98% committed at least one of the "Seven Sins of Greenwashing". These are:

  • Sin of Vagueness: Using vague words or terms, such as "eco-friendly" or "environmentally friendly", which lack a clear or recognised meaning.
  • Sin of No Proof: Making an environmental claim that cannot be substantiated by easily accessible evidence or by a reliable third-party source.
  • Sin of Irrelevance: Making a claim that might be true but is not important or helpful to consumers seeking environmentally sound products. A classic example is stating a product is "CFC-free" when CFCs are banned by law.
  • Sin of Lesser of Two Evils: Making claims that might be true within the product category but distract the consumer from the product's larger environmental impact. For instance, highlighting the "sustainability" of a type of cigarette.
  • Sin of False Worship: Making environmental claims that are simply untrue.
  • Sin of Trade-off: Suggesting a green attribute of a product to offset a larger negative environmental impact, such as highlighting the recyclability of electronic products containing hazardous materials.
  • Sin of Lesser Transparency: Hiding or providing insufficient information about a company's environmental impacts or practices.

Genuine Change

Despite concerns about greenwashing, many companies are making genuine shifts in their operations to become more sustainable. According to KPMG's Corporate Sustainability Report, a significant percentage of the world's top 250 companies now report on sustainability.

Stakeholder Pressure

Pressure from stakeholders, including investors, consumers, and regulators, is driving many companies to adopt sustainable practices. For instance, Schroders' Global Investor Report indicates that investors are increasingly considering environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors in their investment decisions.

Trend or Lasting Change?

While some companies might adopt green practices for marketing reasons, the rising stakeholder pressure, the economic benefits of sustainability, and the growing awareness of climate change, such as the fact that according to the 2018 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, human activities are estimated to have caused approximately 1.0°C of global warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of 0.8°C to 1.2°C. This warming has led to observable climate changes that have impacts on many natural and human systems. This suggests that the adoption of sustainable practices is more than just a passing trend. The UN's Sustainable Development Report underscores the urgent need for action in areas like climate change, biodiversity loss, and inequality, suggesting that sustainability will continue to be a priority for companies and societies worldwide. Companies, recognising their role and responsibility, are adapting and mitigating their impacts.

Amidst the growing awareness of the need for sustainable practices and stakeholder pressure, there's profound reflection on the role of companies in modern society. Sustainability is not just a matter of environmental responsibility but also a strategy that can drive economic success. The intersection between sustainability and economics is where the concept of "shared value" comes into play.

Shared Value: A Bridge between Sustainability and Economics

Introduced by Porter and Kramer in 2011 through an influential article in the Harvard Business Review, the concept of "shared value" has shaped modern business thinking. The essence of this concept lies in the belief that companies can and should develop policies and practices that simultaneously enhance their competitiveness and benefit the communities in which they operate, thus promoting favourable economic and social conditions.

The Dilemma of Sustainability versus Profit

Integrating sustainability into business operations raises a pertinent question: is it possible for companies to effectively balance profits and sustainability? This question isn't just rhetorical but a topic of intense debate in academic and business literature. While the idea of shared value suggests harmony between these two objectives, critics point out potential limitations.

Critiques of the Shared Value Paradigm

A recurring critique of the shared value concept is that it might be insufficient to address broader socio-environmental challenges, given its emphasis on corporate profit. This view suggests that, in some cases, there might be tangible tensions between creating economic value and achieving broader social objectives.

Evidence of the Impact of Sustainability on Business Performance

Countering the critiques, recent studies have showcased the positive potential of sustainability. For instance, research indicates that companies adopting high-performing sustainable practices not only meet ethical and environmental demands but also outperform their peers in terms of operational efficiency and long-term financial return.

The transition from the shared value concept to the practical challenges of balancing profit and sustainability highlights the complexity of the sustainability journey in businesses. While theory suggests potential harmony between profitability and sustainable practices, operational reality might present significant obstacles.

Challenges of Balancing Profit and Sustainability

Laverty discusses the challenge of economic "short-termism", where companies might prioritise short-term financial returns at the expense of long-term sustainable objectives. The author suggests that this mindset can be an obstacle to the true integration of sustainability into business operations.

In summary, while the shared value concept suggests that companies can balance profits and sustainability, the reality is complex. There are inherent tensions between seeking short-term profits and long-term sustainable objectives. However, growing evidence suggests that companies that genuinely integrate sustainability into their strategy and operations can enjoy long-term competitive advantages. The key is a genuine and strategic approach to sustainability, rather than treating sustainability as a mere marketing tactic or an add-on to regular operations.

Sustainable Operations as a Business Strategy

The integration of sustainability into business operations has become an increasing trend, with many companies recognising the tangible and intangible benefits of adopting sustainable practices. Sustainability, once viewed by many as a "luxury" or a "good deed", is now recognised as an essential business strategy that can drive financial performance and create long-term value.

A report by McKinsey & Company highlighted that companies leading in sustainable practices often outperform their peers in terms of financial performance. The study found that these sustainability-leading companies tend to have higher operating margins and returns on invested capital, as well as a higher market valuation (McKinsey & Company, 2014).

However, transitioning to sustainable practices can present challenges, especially when there are short-term pressures to deliver financial results. Eccles, Ioannou, and Serafeim (2014) in their study on the impact of sustainability on financial outcomes, noted that companies that adopted sustainable practices faced an initial period of higher investments and costs. Yet, in the long run, these companies outperformed their peers in terms of return on assets and growth.

The central question is: to what extent are companies willing to compromise short-term profits for long-term sustainable benefits? The answer varies from company to company. While some companies are fully committed to sustainability and are willing to make significant investments to achieve long-term benefits, others might be more hesitant, especially if they face significant stakeholder pressures to deliver short-term results.

Sustainability as a Competitive Edge

Sustainability has become a significant competitive differentiator in many sectors, largely driven by the increasing consumer demand for sustainable products and services. However, the intensity of this demand can vary based on specific demographics and regions.

  • Demographics: Studies have shown that certain demographic groups, particularly millennials and Generation Z, are more likely to consider sustainability when making purchasing decisions. A 2015 Nielsen report found that 73% of millennials are willing to pay more for sustainable products, an increase from 50% of baby boomers (Nielsen, 2015).
  • Region: The demand for sustainability can also vary geographically. For instance, Europe has traditionally been a region where sustainability is highly valued, with many European consumers willing to pay a premium for sustainable products. In contrast, in some emerging economies, sustainability might be a secondary consideration compared to factors like price and quality, although this is changing as environmental awareness grows globally. A 2018 GlobeScan study showed that consumers in countries such as China and India are becoming increasingly concerned about sustainability issues (GlobeScan, 2018).
  • Sector: The importance of sustainability can also vary by sector. For example, in the food and beverage sector, sustainability (like organic farming or fair trade) can be a critical decision factor for many consumers. In contrast, in sectors like electronics, while sustainability is important, other factors like innovation and price might be more dominant.

While the demand for sustainable practices is growing globally, the intensity of this demand can vary based on demographics, regions, and specific sectors. Companies wishing to position themselves as sustainability leaders should, therefore, consider these nuances when developing their strategies.

Innovation and Economic Efficiency: A Perspective for Businesses of All Sizes

Innovation, in a business context, refers to the creation and implementation of new ideas, processes, products, or services that result in significant and measurable improvements over the status quo. These improvements can manifest in terms of increased efficiency, productivity, quality, competitive advantage, and market share (Schumpeter, 1934). Economic efficiency, on the other hand, refers to the optimisation of available resources to achieve the best possible outcomes, whether in terms of production, distribution, or consumption (Pareto, 1906).

When innovation is driven by sustainability, it not only seeks improvements in products or processes but also considers the long-term environmental, social, and economic impacts. This holistic approach can result in tangible benefits such as cost reduction, access to new markets, and improved brand reputation (Porter & Kramer, 2006).

However, the accessibility of these sustainable innovations can vary depending on the size and resources of the company. Large corporations, with their vast financial, human, and technical resources, often have an inherent advantage in adopting and implementing innovations. They can invest in research and development, form strategic partnerships, and absorb the initial costs associated with implementing new technologies or practices (Chesbrough, 2003).

On the other hand, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face distinct challenges. While they might be more agile and adaptable, they often lack the necessary resources to invest in sustainable innovation. However, studies show that SMEs also have the potential to be innovative, especially when operating in market niches or when they can form collaborations and networks with other businesses or institutions (Lee et al., 2010). Moreover, government support programmes, tax incentives, and financing initiatives can help level the playing field, making sustainable innovation more accessible for SMEs (OECD, 2017).

In summary, while large corporations might have an initial advantage in adopting sustainable innovations due to their resources, SMEs also have unique opportunities and can benefit from sustainability-driven innovation, especially when supported by appropriate policies and programmes.

Sustainable Design and Process Optimisation: Valuing the Consumer

Sustainable design refers to the integration of environmental, social, and economic considerations into the development of products, services, and systems, aiming to reduce negative impacts throughout the product's lifecycle (Bhamra & Lofthouse, 2007). This might involve choosing recycled or biodegradable materials, minimising resource use, reducing emissions and waste, and considering the product's durability and efficiency.

Process optimisation, in turn, refers to the continuous review and improvement of production and operational processes to maximise efficiency and minimise waste (Harrington, 1991). In the context of sustainability, this might involve reducing water and energy consumption, minimising waste, and adopting cleaner technologies.

When it comes to consumers' willingness to pay a premium for sustainable products, research suggests a growing trend of valuing sustainability. A 2015 Nielsen study found that 66% of global consumers are willing to pay more for products from brands committed to positive social and environmental impacts, an increase from 55% in 2014. This figure is even higher among millennials, with 73% expressing a willingness to pay a premium for sustainable offerings.

However, it's important to note that while many consumers express a preference for sustainable products, this doesn't always translate into actual purchasing behaviour. Factors like price, quality, and convenience still play a significant role in purchasing decisions (Auger et al., 2008). Additionally, the willingness to pay a premium might vary depending on the product, brand, and geographical region.

While there's a growing appreciation for sustainability among consumers, businesses must carefully balance sustainable design and process optimisation with other determining factors to ensure market success.

Sustainability and Business Resilience: Navigating Stakeholder Demands

Business sustainability refers to an organisation's ability to conduct its operations in a way that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). This involves integrating economic, environmental, and social objectives into their strategies and operations.

Business resilience, on the other hand, is a company's ability to adapt and thrive amidst change and disruptions, whether they arise from economic challenges, natural disasters, regulatory shifts, or other sources of uncertainty (Holling, 1973; Walker et al., 2004). Integrating sustainability can bolster business resilience, as companies that consider the environmental and social impacts of their operations are better positioned to anticipate and respond to emerging risks.

However, the issue of balancing stakeholder demands with potentially conflicting views on sustainability is complex. Stakeholders, which may include shareholders, customers, employees, communities, and other groups, can have different priorities and expectations regarding sustainability (Freeman, 1984). For instance, while some stakeholders might prioritise carbon emission reduction, others might be more focused on fair working practices or financial returns.

To navigate these conflicting demands, companies can adopt a "stakeholder engagement" approach, which involves identifying, understanding, and responding to stakeholder concerns and expectations (Reed et al., 2009). This might involve regular consultations, building partnerships, and seeking collaborative solutions. By doing so, companies can identify areas of alignment, mitigate potential conflicts, and build mutual trust and support.

Integrating sustainability can strengthen business resilience; companies should be proactive and strategic in their engagement with stakeholders to balance and align potentially conflicting views on sustainability.

Stakeholder Engagement and Relationship: Authenticity in the Age of Sustainability

Genuine stakeholder engagement is crucial for building trustful relationships and promoting business sustainability. Stakeholders, including shareholders, customers, employees, communities, suppliers, and other groups, play a vital role in determining a company's success and reputation (Freeman, 1984).

"Greenwashing" refers to the practice of companies falsely promoting their environmental policies or practices to appear more sustainable than they truly are (Laufer, 2003). This practice can harm a company's long-term reputation, especially in an era where transparency and accountability are highly valued (Lyon & Montgomery, 2015).

To ensure genuine stakeholder engagement:

Transparency and Openness: Companies should be transparent in their communications and actions, providing clear and verifiable information about their sustainable practices and impacts (Crane et al., 2014).

Continuous Dialogue: Engagement shouldn't be a one-off activity but an ongoing process of dialogue and feedback. This allows companies to understand and respond to stakeholder concerns and expectations (Reed et al., 2009).

Consistent Action: Sustainability rhetoric must be backed by concrete actions. Companies should demonstrate commitment through tangible initiatives and measurable outcomes (Marquis et al., 2016).

Review and Accountability: Companies should establish review and accountability mechanisms to regularly assess and report on their performance against sustainability goals (Eccles & Serafeim, 2013).

Collaboration: Partnering with stakeholders, including NGOs, communities, and experts, can ensure sustainability initiatives are informed, relevant, and effective (Kaptein & Tulder, 2003).

Genuine stakeholder engagement is achieved through transparency, dialogue, consistent action, review, and collaboration. By adopting these practices, companies can build trustful relationships and promote sustainability authentically and effectively.

Sustainability, once relegated to the fringes of business operations, has emerged as a central force in 21st-century corporate decision-making. This movement isn't just a response to growing environmental concerns but also recognises the interdependence between business success and social and environmental responsibility. Modern companies are realising that sustainability isn't just an ethical issue but also a strategy that can drive innovation, enhance economic efficiency, bolster resilience, and create lasting value.

Stakeholder pressure, from consumers to investors, has been a significant catalyst for this shift. However, authenticity is key. While some companies might be tempted to adopt superficial "green" practices for marketing purposes, true sustainability requires deep commitment and concrete actions. Greenwashing not only damages a company's reputation but also undermines public trust in corporate sustainability initiatives as a whole.

Integrating sustainability into a company's daily operations isn't without challenges. Balancing short-term profits with long-term sustainable goals can be complex. However, as evidenced by studies and business practices, companies that manage to harmonise these two aspects often reap substantial benefits, from competitive advantages to operational efficiency improvements and brand recognition.

Ultimately, the journey towards sustainability is ongoing. It requires reflection, adaptation, and, above all, a genuine commitment to a better future. Companies that embrace this journey not only contribute to a more sustainable world but also position themselves as leaders and innovators in an ever-evolving business landscape.

Recommended Reading

If you want to understand more on this topic, then we recommend browsing these articles:

Why should I invest in sustainability? - Investing in sustainability is not just a moral imperative but a strategic one.

How do you balance sustainability vs short-term initiatives? - Sustainability should be viewed as a strategic objective, rather than just a set of short-term environmental or social initiatives.

What is green entrepreneurship? - Supporting green entrepreneurship by creating incentives and removing barriers that discourage green innovation and investment.

What is the Triple Bottom Line? - Businesses can not only improve their own sustainability practices but also contribute to broader social and environmental goals.

How are companies affected by greenwashing? - Obfuscating the reality of a company's environmental impact, leading to consumer confusion and disengagement.

What are sustainability strategies for startups? - Contributing to addressing global sustainability challenges, gaining a competitive edge, building a resilient business, and ensuring long-term success.

How do you balance People, Planet, and Profit? - The Pillars of Sustainability - but should there be a fourth?



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<li>Improved employee motivation, wellbeing and resilience</li>
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<li>The Human Energy Transition<br>
(from Extrinsic to Intrinsic motivation)</li>

Mojo is our online employee motivation platform that drives productivity, wellbeing and resilience

Mojo delivers a number of unique benefits for any organisation that cares about its employees. These include:
  • Improved employee motivation, wellbeing and resilience
  • Sustainable productivity growth
  • Talent attraction & retention
  • Better customer service
  • The Human Energy Transition
    (from Extrinsic to Intrinsic motivation)

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