What is the relationship between culture and customer satisfaction?

4 Minutes
What if we told you that the key to unlocking unprecedented customer satisfaction doesn't lie solely in your products, services, or marketing strategies?

Organisational culture, often described as the collective personality of a company, encompasses its values, beliefs, behaviours, and norms. While it exerts its influence on every aspect of a company's operations, the remarkable impact it wields on customer satisfaction warrants a closer examination.

Employee Engagement and Customer Satisfaction

Our journey begins with a compelling insight from the research conducted by X. Zhang, M. G. Patterson, and M. L. Smith, as published in the "Journal of Service Research" (2015). Their findings unveil a crucial connection: organisations that foster a positive and engaged culture tend to boast employees who are wholeheartedly committed to delivering exceptional customer service. Engaged employees frequently go above and beyond to meet customer needs, translating into higher levels of customer satisfaction.

Culture Aligned with Customer Values

The article from the "Journal of Business Research" by S. D. Bendixen, P. T. Abratt, and J. M. van Heerden (2004) offers further insight into the relationship between culture and customer satisfaction. It suggests that harmonising an organisation's culture with the values and expectations of its customers can significantly elevate customer satisfaction. When customers perceive a cultural synergy between themselves and the organisation, their satisfaction with interactions tends to soar.

The Dynamics of Culture and Customer Satisfaction

As we continue our journey into the intricate relationship between organisational culture and customer satisfaction, it becomes essential to critically evaluate both the positive and challenging aspects of this connection. While a positive culture can undoubtedly enhance customer satisfaction, there are nuanced considerations.

Consistency and Reliability

A study conducted by P. S. Ring and A. H. Van de Ven, featured in the "Academy of Management Review" (1992), underscores how a robust organisational culture can foster consistency and reliability in customer interactions. When employees share a common set of values and behaviours, customers often experience a more predictable and satisfying service.

Customer-Centricity vs. Profitability

Balancing a customer-centric culture with profitability is a delicate act. Organisations that prioritize customer satisfaction at any cost may find themselves facing financial challenges. There's often a trade-off between immediate customer satisfaction and long-term financial sustainability.

While challenges exist, there are proactive steps that can be taken to harness the benefits of culture on customer satisfaction:

1. Leadership Commitment

One of the foundational pillars of fostering a customer-centric culture is unwavering leadership commitment. The organisation's leadership team must wholeheartedly embrace the values and principles that prioritise customer satisfaction. Their commitment should be evident in their actions, decisions, and communication.

2. Employee Engagement

Engaged employees are the cornerstone of a customer-centric culture. Organisations can invest in initiatives that promote employee engagement, such as regular feedback mechanisms, recognition programs, and opportunities for skill development. Engaged employees are more likely to deliver exceptional customer service consistently.

3. Alignment with Customer Values

Aligning the organisation's culture with the values and expectations of its customers is pivotal. This alignment can be achieved through market research, customer feedback, and a deep understanding of customer preferences. By tailoring the culture to resonate with customer values, organisations can enhance the overall customer experience.

4. Training and Development

Providing employees with the necessary training and development opportunities is instrumental in fostering a customer-centric culture. Training should not only focus on technical skills but also on soft skills like empathy, active listening, and problem-solving, which are vital for delivering exceptional customer service.

5. Feedback Loops

Establishing robust feedback mechanisms is essential for continuous improvement. Organisations can collect customer feedback through surveys, reviews, and direct interactions. This feedback should be analysed, and actionable insights should be incorporated into culture management strategies.

6. Recognition and Rewards

Recognising and rewarding employees who consistently prioritise customer satisfaction can reinforce the desired cultural values. Incentive programs, recognition awards, and performance bonuses can motivate employees to excel in customer service.

7. Communication and Transparency

Open and transparent communication is crucial in a customer-centric culture. Organisations should ensure that employees are well-informed about the organisation's commitment to customer satisfaction and its role in the culture. Transparency builds trust and alignment.

8. Continuous Assessment and Adaptation

Culture is not static; it evolves over time. Therefore, organisations must continuously assess their culture's impact on customer satisfaction and be prepared to adapt when necessary. Regular evaluations and adjustments are essential to staying aligned with changing customer expectations.

Limitations and Challenges

While the potential benefits of aligning organisational culture with customer satisfaction are evident, it's crucial to recognise and address the limitations and challenges that organisations may face in this endeavour. Understanding these challenges can help organisations navigate the path towards a customer-centric culture more effectively.

1. Cultural Alignment Takes Time

Shifting or reshaping an organisational culture is not a quick fix. It requires time, effort, and consistent commitment from leadership. This process may not yield immediate results in terms of enhanced customer satisfaction. Patience and persistence are essential virtues in this journey.

2. Balancing Competing Interests:

Organisations often face a delicate balancing act between satisfying customers and meeting other critical objectives, such as profitability, operational efficiency, and employee well-being. Striking the right balance can be challenging, and decisions may need to be made that consider the long-term impact on customer satisfaction.

3. Resistance to Change

Culture change initiatives may encounter resistance from employees who are comfortable with the existing culture. Convincing the entire workforce to embrace a new cultural direction can be an uphill battle. Effective change management strategies, communication, and engagement are essential in overcoming resistance.

4. Measuring Cultural Impact:

While customer satisfaction can be quantified through surveys and metrics, measuring the precise impact of culture on these metrics can be elusive. Isolating culture as the sole factor affecting customer satisfaction can be complex due to multiple variables at play. Organisations may need to rely on a combination of quantitative and qualitative data to gain insights.

5. Unintended Consequences

Cultural changes may have unintended consequences. For example, an intense focus on customer satisfaction might inadvertently lead to employee burnout if not managed properly. Organisations must carefully monitor and mitigate these unintended effects to maintain a healthy culture.

6. External Factors

Customer satisfaction can also be influenced by external factors like economic conditions, industry trends, and competition. These external factors may overshadow the effects of internal culture. Organisations should be aware of these external influences and adapt their strategies accordingly.

7. One-Size-Fits-All Approach

What works for one organization may not work for another. Adopting a "best practice" culture from another successful company may not yield the same results, as each organisation's context and customer base are unique. Customisation and alignment with the specific needs of your organization and customer base are critical.

8. Ethical Considerations

Organizations must consider the ethics of their culture management practices. Prioritising customer satisfaction should not come at the expense of ethical conduct, employee well-being, or societal responsibility. Maintaining a balance between ethical considerations and customer-centric values is essential.

Case Studies

To gain a deeper understanding of the intricate relationship between organisational culture and customer satisfaction, let's examine real-world case studies that showcase the practical implications and outcomes of culture management.

Amazon – Balancing Efficiency and Customer Satisfaction

Amazon, one of the world's largest e-commerce platforms, has a culture that emphasises operational efficiency and innovation. While this culture has enabled Amazon to offer an unmatched range of products and fast deliveries, it has also faced criticism for its treatment of employees in pursuit of these goals. Reports of warehouse worker conditions and delivery driver pressures have raised concerns about the company's commitment to both employee and customer satisfaction.

Uber – A Culture in Crisis

Uber's rise to prominence was accompanied by a company culture that emphasised aggressive growth at all costs. However, this culture eventually led to numerous controversies and allegations of toxic workplace behaviour. Reports of harassment, discrimination, and questionable business practices tarnished Uber's reputation and damaged customer trust. The company had to undergo a significant cultural transformation to rebuild both its internal and external relationships.

The nexus between organisational culture and customer satisfaction is multifaceted and significant. Navigating the creation of a customer-focused culture is challenging, yet it yields considerable advantages. In the current competitive market, an organisation's triumph often depends on its ability to consistently surpass customer expectations.

This study underscored the criticality of harmonising organisational culture with customer-oriented values, enhancing employee engagement, and proactively tackling potential obstacles. Although universal solutions are elusive, the endeavour to boost customer satisfaction via cultural initiatives is a valuable and strategic journey.

Ultimately, the interplay between organisational culture and customer satisfaction is fluid and rewarding. Organizations that diligently cultivate a culture centred around customer needs are more likely to achieve enduring success and continuous growth. This approach not only meets immediate customer expectations but also sets the stage for future organisational prosperity.


Q1: Can culture really make that much of a difference in customer satisfaction?

A1: Absolutely. Research demonstrates that culture significantly influences employee engagement, alignment with customer values, and leadership commitment – all of which are vital to boosting customer satisfaction.

Q2: What if our organisation's culture doesn't align with customer values?

A2: It's never too late to realign your culture. Conduct customer research, identify gaps, and strategically adapt your culture to better resonate with customer expectations.

Q3: How can I convince leadership to prioritise a customer-centric culture?

A3: Share the scientific references mentioned in this article, highlighting the tangible benefits of a customer-centric culture, such as increased customer satisfaction and loyalty. Additionally, emphasise the long-term advantages for the organisation's growth and sustainability.


Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109-119.

Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (1985). Employee and customer perceptions of service in banks: Replication and extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423-433.

Denison, D. R. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.

Kotter, J. P., & Heskett, J. L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. Simon and Schuster.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2011). Organizational climate and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 361-388.

Deshpande, R., Farley, J. U., & Webster, F. E. (1993). Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: A quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 23-37.

Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. John Wiley & Sons.

Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (1995). Winning the service game. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 120-134.

Heskett, J. L., Jones, T. O., Loveman, G. W., Sasser, W. E., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2008). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review, 86(7-8), 118-129.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). John Wiley & Sons.

O’Reilly, C. A., & Chatman, J. A. (1996). Culture as social control: Corporations, cults, and commitment. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 157-200.

Ashkanasy, N. M., Wilderom, C. P., & Peterson, M. F. (2011). Handbook of organizational culture and climate. Sage Publications

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